Samstag, 18. Februar 2017

Über den Nutzen von Entwürfen:

>Bewusstsein ist anscheinend unverzichtbar, um die Elemente eines Problems zu identifizieren und grob zu skizzieren, wie eine Lösung aussehen könnte. Der für den New Yorker tätige Autor John McPhee hat gesagt, er müsse einen - egal wie lausigen - Entwurf erstellen, bevor die eigentliche Arbeit an einem Artikel beginnen könne. "Ohne einen existierenden Entwurf würde man offenkundig nicht darüber nachdenken, wie er zu verbessern wäre. Genau genommen schreibt man vielleicht nur zwei bis drei Stunden am Tag, aber im Geiste ist man auf die eine oder andere Weise rund um die Uhr, ja, auch im Schlaf, damit beschäftigt - allerdings nur, wenn bereits ein Entwurf oder eine frühere Version existiert. Vorher hat der Schreibprozess nicht wirklich begonnen." <

Richard Nisbett

Freitag, 17. Februar 2017

"Human language differs from other animal communication systems, even those where animals speak or sign their intentions, by the degree to which humans use rules to combine a few discrete, arbitrary sounds into a nearly limitless and readily understood group of novel and complex words, phrases and sentences."

John Marzluff

Sonntag, 12. Februar 2017

Thinking, Speaking, and Writing:

"Writing, after all, is nothing but speaking on paper, speaking is nothing but thinking out loud, and thinking is nothing but silent speech."

Rudolf Flesch

I disagree with Rudolf Flesch. From personal observations I would say that inner thoughts, even verbal inner thoughts, are in general less structured than spoken language or the written word. Since we think for ourselves and not primarily for communication with other individuals, our thoughts are less constrained in form and have higher degrees of freedom. The spoken or written language should be understandable for other persons. For that reason the spoken and written word has to be highly structured and constrained in form. On average, thoughts are less structured than spoken words, and spoken words are less structured than written words.

Freitag, 10. Februar 2017

"When a man thinks he has enough of evidence for some notion of his he sometimes refuses to listen to any additional evidence pro or con, saying, “It is a settled question, probatis probata; it needs no evidence; it is certain.” This is knowledge as distinguished from faith. He says, “I do not believe; I know.” “ If any man thinketh that he knoweth, he knoweth yet nothing as he ought to know.'' This knowledge is a shutting of one's ears to all arguments, and is the same as “Implicit faith” in one of its meanings."

James Clerk Maxwell (1850)
"Intelligence, or rather “g”, may perhaps be best defined as the ability to perceive relations between things (especially, of course, the ability to appreciate, grasp, and apply the most complicated relationships). It manifests itself in adaptability to new situations (not emotional adaptability), in originality of thought, in the power to reason abstractly, in rapidity of learning, and indeed in almost all the activities of man which are not purely habitual."

Raymond B. Cattell

Germany - Number of Marriages and Divorces by Year

Austrian Homicide Statistics (1976-2015) - Age at Time of Final Judgment by Sex